Respond to classmates’. Posts must be at least 75 words in length and demonstra

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Respond to classmates’. Posts must be at least 75 words in length and demonstrate critical thinking, engagement with course material, and a meaningful attempt to engage in discourse.
1.) Kyle Cartwright
Part 1. Give an example of a problem that an individual may face, and using your sociological imagination, explain how broader social factors in society may be impacting that person’s life. For example, a person who is struggling to get a job may be impacted by an array of social factors, such as inadequate education, discriminatory practices, and a lack of transportation. Be creative! I’ll use myself as an example. I’m an awful artist. I’m 22 and I can’t draw anything past stick-figures. Ironically, I have a girlfriend who is a hauntingly-amazing artist. We both had similar-ish experiences and influences growing up. But what gave her the gift of being an artist with that kind of skill and talent? If we’re ignoring the possibility of talent that you’re born with, what could she have possibly done differently from me that made her develop into an artist?
Part 2. Briefly explain one of the three main sociological perspectives (structural functionalism, conflict theory, or symbolic interactionist) in your own words. According to this perspective, generally speaking, why does the problem that you identified in Part 1 exist in society?
In my own words and the best way I can describe it, symbolic interactionist theory is basically when people’s actions, views, interests, and opinions are influenced or caused by interactions or events that they’ve had that shaped them to be the way they are. For example, if a parent brings their child to a concert, the child could grow up and want to learn to play an instrument. To address the ‘why’ the example problem in part 1 exists; I genuinely do not know. That’s why it’s called symbolic interactionist theory. It’s just a theory that these influences and experiences play a part in people’s lives. Of course, you could draw some parallels in certain scenarios, but there’s no way to truly prove that if two people were to experience the same thing and have the same influences, they would come out the exact same. There are way too many factors at play, and not every result is consistent, despite demographics and trends. It goes back to the point I made in part 1. I lived a pretty similar life as my girlfriend and had similar interests, but I ended up being an awful artist, yet she can draw like a professional. 2.) Hannah Gildea
Part 1: A 16-year-old girl goes to school in a V-neck t-shirt, the same t-shirt many of her female classmates and friends own. She walks into her first period class where her teacher states that she needs to change her shirt due to how much of her chest is revealed. She is relatively more developed than her fellow classmates. However, the shirt covers the same areas as the other girls wearing the shirt. This type of social construct has perpetuated the belief that she is a distraction to the boys and the teacher in the class. She has also noticed that the girls less developed than her are not being cited by the teachers in her school. This is an example of both body and gender discrimination. She is being taught that it is her job as a woman to cover herself in order for a man to succeed. In addition, it is insinuated that her body is an object of lust used to distract men from doing their work.
Part 2: Social Institutions happen when belief systems are passed on from one generation to another with small key differences. Society continues this system, sometimes unknowingly, prolonging these stereotypes and biases. There are many reasons for this but some include religious beliefs, cultural backgrounds, and the after effects of traumatizing events. Many of these types of concepts have been institutionalized in society. According to (UMGC, n.d., Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology.) “Social institutions are patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs.” In the case of the girl being dress coded the “social need” is the boys not being distracted. This is an example of how gender discrimination is implemented into workplaces and schools. Umgc.(n.d.)Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology.–2225-/theoretical-perspectives-in-sociology0.html
1.) Jasmin German
There are five main business structures that the group of accountants could choose from; sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company, corporation, and s corporation. A sole proprietorship is a business structure owned by an individual who has complete creative and operational control over the business. Starting up a sole proprietorship is a breeze considering that incorporation is not required causing all revenue to be reported on the owner’s personal taxes. The downside is that the owner’s assets are essentially the business’s assets and are at risk of being taken by creditors or any other legal situation. A sole proprietorship dies with its owner. A partnership is basically the same thing as a sole proprietorship, except, the ownership and liabilities are divided among the owners of the business and each partner is taxed individually. A limited liability company is a business structure that doesn’t have a set number of owners but operates as a separate entity from its owner/s. The owner/s personal assets are safe from confiscation in legal matters regarding the business. A disadvantage of a limited liability company is that it has to go through the process of being legally established as a business which brings more upfront costs than a sole proprietorship or partnership. Similarly, corporations also have to go through the legal process of being incorporated to be established as a business. Corporations are also separated from their owners/shareholders which means it has limited liability and can easily transfer their ownership to new shareholders in the case that one dies. Another major advantage of having a corporation is that it is taxed at a lowered rate than other forms of business. On the other hand, corporations are required to make their financial standings known to the public through annual financial reports and host meetings with a board of directors. Their biggest disadvantage is that they are double taxed at the business level and then at the shareholder level. Last but not least is an s-corporation, which is a business structure that combines the characteristics of a partnership and a corporation. The shareholder owns an equal share of the business and takes on the taxation responsibility. The best part about the s-corp is that it doesn’t get double taxation like the corporation even though it has limited liability due to the owners and the business being separate entities. In considering all the pros and cons of each structure, I think the group of accountants should adopt the s-corporation as a business structure. This business structure will provide them with the protection of their assets, saved them money from paying double taxes, and also provide them with the flexibility to transfer ownership in the case that someone no longer wanted to be part of the business anymore. The easiest organization type to obtain funds for is the corporation because of its limited liability and its organizational size. As a borrower, a corporation has a bigger amount of shares that investors can purchase. Because of this, it can be funded by lots of people making small investments rather than fewer people making big investments. The corporation can offer investors the benefit of a smaller risk at no cost to their personal assets. Reference
Boundless Finance (n.d.) Introduction to the Field and Goals of Financial
2.) James DeMoss
Out of the organizational forms of business, the accountants could choose from either a general partnership, limited partnership, limited liability partnership (or LLC), or a corporation. There is also a sole proprietorship, but this type does not apply to them since it is a group. The partnership is the simplest structure open to collaborative ownership. The partnership style is structured like a sole proprietorship at the base but differs in specific aspects. Owners can hire managers and employees and are completely in charge. There is no real distinction between the owner and the business. The owners are liable (legally and financially) for the actions and liabilities of the business. Finally, the income is only taxed once as opposed to being taxed at both the business and personal level. Specifically, the general partnership is now just multiple owners, income is still only taxed once, and the liabilities are the same as a sole proprietorship. The limited partnership involves at least one general partner managing the company and taking on the risk and the partners are passive investors. Limited liability (or LLC) allows partners to limit their legal and financial liability, but this is limited to the assets of the business and each partner’s behavior. Specifics of the law with a limited liability also vary by country and by state. A large advantage of the partnership structure is its ease in filing and tax treatment. A general partnership can be started with no formalities and the partners are taxed individually on their share of the partnership’s profits. The main disadvantage is that the partnership’s owners can be personally liable for business losses. The partnership is not a separate entity from the owners. A corporation is a firm owned by many individuals (stockholders) who in most cases have little input in operating the firm. The fundamental component of the corporate form of ownership is the separation of ownership from the process of managing the firm. Stockholders elect a board of directors responsible for hiring management and overseeing operations. Corporations also account for the bulk of business activity in the US. A corporation’s advantages are that it is a limited liability, there is easier access to capital and the ability to diversify is easier. However, the disadvantages are that the startup costs are high along with agency fees, there are elevated levels of regulation, and there is double taxation since the business and owners are two separate entities. The best decision for the group of accountants is a general partnership. They can all start the business as co-owners with no special formalities, the profits are shared equally among the members and taxed individually. This would be the best decision, especially if things go sideways down the road every partner would be liable for the obligations of the business, including debts and taxes. Finally, a corporation would be the easiest to raise money because the owners could sell shares of the company’s stock to raise funds. Though this is the form of business that takes the most capital to start, selling ownership or stock would fast-track growth after that initial investment is made. An advantage as a borrower is that you can use those funds to put back into the business for further growth while a disadvantage may be finding investors. However, since this is the majority of businesses in the U.S. it has proven to be affective. Boundless Finance. (n.d.). Introduction to the field of Financial Management. Retrieved January 16, 2023, from BMGT364
1.) Linh Chau
(1) The furniture manufacturing functions are very disorganized. It is not clear how to best organize these functions. For example, the varnish and dye experts each use a different method to do all of their tasks.
I choose consultant: Frank and Lillian Gilbreth because by selecting and reiterating the one most effective approach to execute a task, they prioritized efficiency. Each varnish and dye expert in this case does all of their tasks using a separate methodology. They can determine the best techniques to use to their duties and duplicate them to increase their efficiency with the assistance of these consultants.
(3) The lumberjacks, both in cutting trees down and shipping them by truck or boat, differ on the best methods to perform these tasks.
I choose consultant: Fredrick W. Taylor because according to him, it was the manager’s obligation to decide how best to assign a task to a worker and to give them the necessary equipment and training. In this instance, lumberjacks are chopping trees and transporting them using techniques that are not always the most effective. The problem will be resolved with the assistance of this expert by providing pertinent training to their staff on the most effective ways to do each of their tasks.
(4) Tempers are flaring as a result of the disorganization. The office, clerical, and support workers are rude to each other and can’t seem to act as a cohesive work unit.
I choose consultant: Mary Parker Follett because she thinks that the workplace entails teamwork and ways to encourage more work. She also understands how crucial it is for an organization to succeed. In this situation, office, clerical, and support staff are nasty to one another and unable to function as a cohesive team. This problem might be resolved with her assistance by inspiring and forcing them to collaborate in order to accomplish their aims and objectives. Seminars and training sessions could be helpful in this situation.
(6) Employees are feeling overworked and losing satisfaction in the work they are doing. They believe their basic needs are not being addressed.
I choose consultant: Henry Gantt because Henry Gantt was concerned about the incentives and proposed a system of remuneration that he thought would be equitable to both labor and industry. The employees in this situation were no longer motivated because they felt that their fundamental requirements were not being met. And by “basic necessities,” we mean the need for things like food, clothing, housing, rest, security, and safety. He may meet this demand of the employees and inspire them to work hard by paying them enough to ensure their daily needs and future.
2.) John Ferris
(1) Manufacturing Functions are Disorganized
Henry Gantt
Gantt as a consultant could watch the current process, consider where the disorder needs to be reorganized, and re-order. Since reorganizing of the various functions in the manufacturing process will be needed Gantt is the best choice to deploy use of the Gantt Chart (“Principles of Management”). Each step of the process from the raw resource acquisition to the logistics of moving it to the line in order to start creating the furniture can be plotted. This method will allow not only a reorganizing, but over-time an improvement in timelines by figuring out where you need the most labor for each step-in manufacturing.
Furthermore – improving manufacturing is only the first step. Through this process and better plotting of time consumptions and labor power it will allow reallocation of resources if Alicia considers growing the company with more products or different. For Alicia this could be a good idea as the company has been around for some time and the outside environment and what clients purchase has and will continue to change over time – styles.
(4) Tempers Flare Among Office Support Staff
Max Weber
For issues with the office support staff the consultant that can help Alicia best is Max Weber – an expert in the Bureaucratic Theory. A benefit of Max Weber with fixing the support staff is that top-down management can be applied – and this department would immensely benefit from a hierarchical structure. There needs to be a supervisor/manager that the staff report to and can apply rules uniformly. Furthermore, that supervisor/manager will then be able to manage the staff and divide the labor to perform specific support items – ie: accounts payable, accounts receivable, ordering, etc. (“Principles of Management”) (5) Lack of Formal Rules/Record-Keeping Processes
Henri Fayol
Like Max Weber, Henri Fayol witnessed and implemented similar thought as Max Webern of bureaucracy/administration. Henri Fayol would be the best consultant to handle suggestions in creating formal rules and record-keeping processes – not through coming up with his own policies perhaps, but the creation of a structure that entrusts management – who know the business best to do this. Fayol believed in managers being responsible for more than just increasing production levels and could therefore help recommend to Alicia what needs to be done in terms of planning rules for down the road. (“Principles of Management”)
Fayol believed there were five duties of management – foresight, organization, command, coordinate and control – these five points can perhaps also be used in making formal rules for the company that look at the now and forward to what is needed to govern (“Principles of Management”). Furthermore – record-keeping is important – and there needs to be a process that is forward thinking, organized and well-coordinated. Fayol’s principles and thought would be best in moving this forward.
(6) Basic Needs and Job Satisfaction Overlooked
Elton Mayo
Elton Mayo will be the consultant recommended to Alicia for this aspect. Basic needs could be considered important for employees – they improve job satisfaction. Of course – adding too many benefits or pay can also be a weight on a business in terms of operating expenses. Elton Mayo had done research on benefits and the impact of both adding and subtracting (“Principles of Management”). This is important because Mayo maybe able to best figure out the proper balance between company assets and how much is too much for staff as a drain on such assets.
Principles of Management. Lumen. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2023, from…
Principles of Management. Lumen. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2023, from…
Principles of Management. Lumen. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2023, from…

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