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please respond to the folowing objective with 300 words
After reviewing Module One, you should be familiar with the learning objectives and “how they corelate with Chapter One of our text”. “Focusing on Periods of Development, you will notice the different stages that have been set fourth in how and when humans develop”. Please respond with 300 words. you can use the information listed below to answer the questions.
Module 1 Summary
Module Learning Objectives
Now that you have completed this module you should be able to:
Identify the overall idea of developmental psychology.
Apply the perspectives, concepts of age, periods of age and issues in lifespan development.
Demonstrate familiarity with some of the historical and contemporary theories of lifespan development.
Identify Research Methods as described in the textbook
By the end of this module you should have completed the following activities:
Read Chapter 1 of our textbook.
Reply in Week 1 Discussion Board.
Also known as Human Development or Lifespan Development, is the scientific study of ways in which people change, as well as stay the same, from conception to death. You will no doubt discover in the course of studying that the field examines change across a broad range of topics. These include physical and other psychophysiological processes, cognition, language, and psychosocial development, including the impact of family and peers.
Check out the video below for an overview of Developmental Psychology! (Please disregard the course number mentioned in the video)
Development is lifelongLifespan theorists believe that development is life-long, and change is apparent across the lifespan. No single age period is more crucial, characterizes, or dominates human development.
Development is multidirectional
We change in many different directions. Including growth and loss.
Development is multidimensional
We change across three general domains/dimensions.physical
Development is multidisciplinaryRequires the theories
Knowledge base of many academic disciplines.
Development is characterized by plasticity
Plasticity is our ability to change and that many of our characteristics are malleable.
Development is multicontextual
Normative age-graded influences
Normative history-graded influences
Non-normative life influences
Another context that influences our lives is our social standing, socioeconomic status, or social class. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a way to identify families and households based on their shared levels of education, income, and occupation.
Poverty level is an income amount established by the federal government that is based on a set of income thresholds and vary by size. If a family’s income is less than the government threshold, that family is considered in poverty.
Culture is the totality of our shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. It includes ideas about what is right and wrong, what to strive for, what to eat, how to speak, what is valued, as well as what kinds of emotions are called for in certain situations.
Lifespan vs. Life expectancyLifespan, or longevity, refers to the length of time a species can exist under the most optimal conditions
Life expectancy is the predicted number of years a person born in a particular time period they are expected to live.
Conceptions of Age
How old are you? Chances are you would answer that question based on the number of years since your birth, or what is called your chronological age. Ever felt older than your chronological age? Some days we might “feel” like we are older, especially if we are not feeling well, are tired, or are stressed out. We might notice that a peer seems more emotionally mature than we are, or that they are physically more capable. So years since birth is not the only way we can conceptualize age.
Another way developmental researchers can think about the concept of age is to examine how quickly the body is aging, this is your biological age. Several factors determine the rate at which our body ages. Our nutrition, level of physical activity, sleeping habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, how we mentally handle stress, and the genetic history of our ancestors, to name but a few.
Our psychologically adaptive capacity compared to others of our chronological age is our psychological age. This includes our cognitive capacity along with our emotional beliefs about how old we are.
Our social age is based on the social norms of our culture and the expectations our culture has for people of our age group. Our culture often reminds us whether we are “on target” or “off target” for reaching certain social milestones, such as completing our education, moving away from home, having children, or retiring from work.
Periods of Development
Issues in Lifespan Development
Continuity versus Discontinuity
Is human development best characterized as a slow, gradual process, or is it best viewed as one of more abrupt change? The answer to that question often depends on which developmental theorist you ask and what topic is being studied. The theories of Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and Kohlberg are called stage theories. Stage theories or discontinuous development assume that developmental change often occurs in distinct stages that are qualitatively different from each other, and in a set, universal sequence. At each stage of development, children and adults have different qualities and characteristics. Thus, stage theorists assume development is more discontinuous. Others, such as the behaviorists, Vygotsky, and information processing theorists, assume development is a more slow and gradual process known as continuous development.
Active versus Passive
Some theorists see humans as playing a much more active role in their own development. Piaget, for instance believed that children actively explore their world and construct new ways of thinking to explain the things they experience. In contrast, many behaviorists view humans as being more passive in the developmental process.
Stability versus Change
How similar are you to how you were as a child? Were you always as out-going or reserved as you are now? Some theorists argue that the personality traits of adults are rooted in the behavioral and emotional tendencies of the infant and young child. Others disagree, and believe that these initial tendencies are modified by social and cultural forces over time.
Historical and Contemporary Theories of Development
Well into the 18th century, children were merely thought of as little adults. Preformationism, or the belief that a tiny, fully formed human is implanted in the sperm or egg at conception and then grows in size until birth, was the predominant early theory. Children were believed to possess all their sensory capabilities, emotions, and mental aptitude at birth, and as they developed, these abilities unfolded on a predetermined schedule
John Locke (1632-1704):
Locke, a British philosopher, refuted the idea of innate knowledge and instead proposed that children are largely shaped by their social environments, especially their education as adults teach them important knowledge.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778):
Like Locke, Rousseau also believed that children were not just little adults. However, he did not believe they were blank slates, but instead developed according to a natural plan which came at different stages. He did not believe in teaching them the correct way to think, but believed children should be allowed to think by themselves according to their own ways and an inner, biological timetable. This focus on biological maturation resulted in Rousseau being considered the father of developmental psychology.
Arnold Gesell (1880-1961):
Gesell spent 50 years at the Yale Clinic of Child Development, and with his colleagues he studied the neuromotor development of children. Gesell believed that the child’s development was activated by genes and he called this process maturation (Crain, 2005). Further, he believed that development unfolded in fixed sequences, and he opposed efforts to teach children ahead of schedule as he believed they will engage in behaviors when their nervous systems had sufficiently matured.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939):
Check out Freud’s theory in the link below!
Freud’s 5 Stages of Psychosexual DevelopmentLinks to an external site.
Contemporary Theories on Development
Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
Learning Theory (Behaviorism)
Part 1 Video
Part 2 Video
Social Learning Theory
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
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