Please respond to discussion below using current APA 7th edition and 2-3 referen

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Please respond to discussion below using current APA 7th edition and 2-3 references within the past 4-5 years. Must be at least 150 words minimum.
The title of Advanced Practice Nurse is an all-encompassing term which includes certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNA), certified nurse-midwives (CNM), certified nurse specialists (CNS) and Nurse Practitioners (NP). The NCSBN defines an APRN as a registered nurse (RN) who has a graduate degree and advanced knowledge within one of those four categories. These nurses can diagnose illnesses and prescribe treatments and medications. There exists many similarities and differences among these roles. This essay will highlight the role of a primary care nurse practitioner (PCNP) compared to the rest of those referred to as APNs.
It has been identified by the primary care scholar, Barbara Starfield that primary care is made of four key tasks: first contact with care, longitudinal care (care over time), comprehensiveness of care and coordination of services. (Hamric, 2009) Primary care nurse practitioners play a very important role in increasing access to health care and are considered in the United States to be the nation’s safety net. The federal government allocates a significant amount of funding for educational institutions that train and prepare NPs to practice independently providing care for underserved and vulnerable populations. Nurse-led health centers are primary care sites usually located in disadvantaged communities where providers work closely with community leaders to advance health equity in these areas. It is suggested that even a moderate expansion of nurse-led health centers could mitigate primary care physician shortage. (Auerbach et al., 2013) A study that compared the economic and clinical outcomes between primary care NPs and MDs in the Veteran’s Affairs system found a small but significant reduction in the use of primary and specialty care among patients assigned to an NP versus MD. (Liu et al., 2020)
While the other types of APNs such as CRNA, CNM and CNSs can focus solely on their specialized group of patients, primary care NPs are faced with a wide variety of patient issues. Primary care NPs can care for pediatric patients all the way up to the geriatric population all in the same day. The issues seen from patient to patient and across the lifespan are complex and requires constant, comprehensive decision making. The role of the primary care NP requires a bit more in the way of care coordination than do the other APN subgroups. This is in part due one of primary care key tasks described earlier of being the first contact with care. For example, a patient may go to their primary care NP when they first begin experiencing symptoms. The primary care NP must then complete a thorough history and physical on the patient, order any laboratory or diagnostic test they deem necessary, prescribe medications, and make appropriate referrals.
All advanced practice nurses are similar in that they are guided by the same nursing model of care. Using a holistic approach to care which takes into consideration the patient’s physiological needs as well as the environment and communities they are a part of. They provide evidence-based practices and keen assessment to provide competent care to their patients. The clinical practice of a primary care NP can be described of as a combination of nursing and medical models of care in which there is an understanding of the social determinants of health and how these affect the patient’s health and illness experience.

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