250 word response for each question- refuting/correcting, or adding additional n

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250 word response for each question- refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts. APA format intent citation. academic resource no older than 5 years old for each question.
Question #1 The science of nursing is based on theory, continuous study, and empirical data. To enhance the standard of care and nursing practice, the evidence is used in nursing. According to Butts & Rich (2015), a theory is made up of concepts and propositions about a phenomenon. It derives from a conceptual model, a more abstract and general concept and proposition that provides an organized structure for the research design and method and also guides the development and testing of hypotheses and places research findings within the context of science.
An experiment on the impact of exercise on fatigue and physical functioning in cancer patients was undertaken between 2002 and 2006, and the Levine Conservation Model served as a helpful framework. The four conservation principles of the model served as a guide for creating the exercise intervention, identifying important patient outcomes, and choosing the right tools to measure the research variables. Additionally, the model is proving helpful for data analysis and interpretation in connection to conservation principles. The use of an appropriate conceptual model facilitates the design and testing of theory-based interventions and the development of science to support nursing practice (Mock et al. ,2007). Theories can be classified into three categories: explanatory, predictive, and descriptive. Explanatory theories give explanations for facts; descriptive theories describe phenomena; and predictive theories explain how one concept influences one or more other concepts. These hypotheses need to be linked to empirical markers in order to be observed or measured. For example, assessment and intervention tools, the sample size of research participants, the research design and data collection procedures among others (Butts & Rich, 2015).
The conceptual-theoretical-empirical (C-T-E) structure of theory formation is made up of the three elements—a conceptual model, a theory, and empirical indicators. APNs (Advanced Practice Nurses) can work alone or with others to undertake research. APNs can either make a diagram for an existing study or create a C-T-E structure for their own research to develop a new theory. Two different approaches can be used in order to create a C-T-E structure: the first approach is the selection of the conceptual model of nursing and the direct derivation of a theory from that conceptual model, which ensures a logical linkage between the conceptual model and theory; the second approach is to pick a conceptual model and link it to an existing nursing theory (Butts & Rich, 2015). An evaluation of the conceptual-theoretical and empirical linkages, evaluation of the theory, evaluation of the empirical research methods, evaluation of the research findings, and evaluation of the usefulness and soundness of the conceptual model are the five steps in the C-T-E structures for theory generation and theory testing. An example of a CTE structure for a Roy Adaptation Model-guided theory-testing study or practice was explained by Fawcett, (2009). The C-T-E structure for theory-testing research and/or for practice is constructed deductively, proceeding from the conceptual model to the theory to the empirical indicators. Fawcett, (2009) explains, the Roy Adaptation Model concept of environmental stimuli is represented by the theory of the concept of the type of cesarean birth, which is defined as planned or unplanned cesarean delivery, as measured by an item on the Background Data Sheet. The conceptual notion of perception at the birth experience, which is described as feelings regarding labor or preoperative operations, delivery, and initial contact with the newborn as measured by the perception of Birth Experience Scale, is a representation of cognition coping mechanisms. The notion of responses to cesarean delivery, which is defined as women’s responses to the events surrounding cesarean childbirth, as measured by a numerical score based on replies to open-ended questions on the Cesarean Birth Experience Questionnaire, represents the concept of modes of adaptation.
In conclusion, using a conceptual model to direct nursing research and practice helps to build theory, which in turn helps to continuously develop and enhance nursing practice, education, and patient care.
Question #2
A scientific theory is a well-supported explanation of some natural environment characteristic learned via the scientific
process and is correct through repeated testing and observation. A theory is a proposition validated via repeatable
experiments and is widely recognized as correct; a theory often explains the behavior of a much broader class of events
than a hypothesis (Jones, 2018). Theories can be overturned when new evidence is discovered, but they generally serve as
the foundation for further scientific research and understanding. Theorists can develop theories through various methods,
including observation, experimentation, induction, deduction, and intuition. Theories can also be evaluated on different
criteria, including their explanatory power, predictive power, parsimony, and elegance.
In the arts, a theory is typically an idea or set of ideas that are proposed as a way of understanding or explaining something.
Artists or critics often develop artistic theories to understand the work of art, the artist, or the artistic process. Artistic
theories can be helpful in the interpretation of art, but they are often controversial and subject to change. A scientific
theory’s development typically begins with observing a phenomenon. Scientists then develop a hypothesis, or testable
explanation, for the phenomenon (Jones, 2018). The hypothesis is then tested through experimentation and observation. If
the data support the hypothesis, it may be accepted as a theory. If the hypothesis is not supported, it may be rejected or
The scientific process is an ongoing cycle of observation, hypothesis, testing, and refinement. An artistic theory’s
development typically begins with observing a work of art. Artists or critics may then develop an interpretation or
explanation for the work of art. The interpretation is then tested through discussion and analysis. If the evidence supports
the interpretation, it may be accepted as a theory (Rivard, 2020). If the interpretation is not supported, it may be rejected or
modified. The artistic process is an ongoing observation, interpretation, discussion, and refinement cycle. The evaluation of a
scientific theory is typically based on its ability to explain the phenomena it purports to explain. A good theory is generally
considered a good theory that is well-supported by data and makes accurate predictions. A theory that is not well-supported
by data or makes inaccurate predictions is generally considered a poor theory.
When evaluating an artistic theory, the first question is whether or not the theory can explain the work of art it purports to
explain. If the theory fails to do this, it is not a very good theory. However, even if the theory does explain the work of art in
question, the theory may be good. The next question is whether or not the theory can convincingly explain the work of art.
If the theory fails to do this, it is not a very good theory (Rivard, 2020). There are several ways a theory can explain the work
of art it purports to explain. One way is by providing a historical context for the work of art. A theorist can achieve this by
providing information about the artist who created the work of art and the time and cultural context in which the artist
created the art. Another way a theory can explain the work of art is by providing an interpretation of the work of art; this
may be accomplished in a few different ways: by analysing the piece of art, comparing it to other pieces of art, or comparing
it to the theory itself.
Jones, L. (2018). The art and science of non-evaluation evaluation. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 23(4), 262-267. https://doi.org/10.1177/1355819618779614Links to an external site.
Rivard, S. (2020). Theory building is neither an art nor a science. It is a craft. Journal of Information Technology, 36(3), 316-328. https://doi.org/10.1177/0268396220911938

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