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Submit your final research proposal. Note: You will not actually carry out your research project (i.e. operationalize your research design) in this class. You are writing a proposal for this assignment (which is often used to obtain funding such as a grant to complete the research). It is not a complete research paper. Thus, you will propose the collection of data to test your hypothesis, but you will not actually get to do it. Your proposal should have the following sections:
Research Proposal: Transportation Security (such as TSA)
Research Question: What security measures are different pre 9/11 to post 9/11 in transportation areas such as the airport and what are some needed adjustments to improve current security measures?
Hypothesis: If security measures in transportation areas such as the airport were the same as pre 9/11, where would the country be now with the ability to protect itself against terrorist and other criminals?
Title Page: Your title page should include the working title of your research project proposal, your name, date, and course title.
Introduction: The introduction is where you identify your specific research question and where you set the general context for the study. In this section you need to include:
a research hook (something like a statistic or interesting fact) that will encourage the reader to keep reading;
an introduction to the topic and its larger context, including a discussion of why it is important to study. It provides the current state of accumulated knowledge as it relates to your specific research question.
a statement of the problem and context leading to a clear statement of the specific research question. (The research question for this paper is: [fill in the blank]);
background and contextual material justifying why this case or topic should be studied; and
a purpose statement.
promote the importance of your own research. How will your research fit within this larger body of knowledge? What are you doing differently? What gaps will your research fill?
Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework tells the reader what your basic theoretical lens is. It’s an opportunity for you to tell the reader where you are coming from. If, for instance, a realist viewpoint would help the reader understand your perspective, include a summary here. Same goes for a Marxist or liberal viewpoint. The theoretical framework is not always necessary. If you want to use a theory to derive variables for the lit review, that would go in the literature review, not the theoretical framework. This is simply a way to explain your model and starting point for the research.
a summary of the theory or model to be used in the study, including a diagram of the model if appropriate;
comment on the kinds of questions this theory has been used to answer in the past and why it is appropriate to use in this proposed study
Literature Review: The literature review tells the reader what variables you want to include the data when you collect it. The literature review focuses on discussing how other researchers have addressed the same or similar research questions. In this section you should:
Summarize the general state of the literature on the research topic. For example, if you discuss other studies that have been conducted you would summarize the researcher’s findings, how those findings were obtained, and conduct an evaluation of biases in the findings.
The literature is the DEDUCTIVE part of the deductive research project. This is where you will deduce the variables and hypothesis from previous research and/or theory. You will derive those elements from peer reviewed research in the literature review.
This section should provide a broad overview of the primary arguments related to the topic and organizes the general views on the main aspects of the topic by theme or variable, which could be the prevailing arguments or schools of thought, commonly held beliefs that incorporate your particular topic, elements that may influence the phenomenon you are studying; demographics and variables that may be a part of the answer to the research question.
The literature review MUST be organized around the variables that you will propose measuring in the data that you will propose to collect. These are the parts of the hypothesis.
Include a short conclusion and hypothesis.
REMEMBER TO USE HEADINGS AND SUBHEADINGS!
NOTE: Literature reviews can be a bit tricky to write. Think back to how you wrote your short theory lit review in week 4. Chances are you already started to write in a style similar to what one does when completing a literature review. This will not be the last time that you are asked to write a literature review in your academic career, so it is important to master this skill.
Research Design and Methods: Describes how you will answer your research question by testing the hypothesis. This section describes your overall research design and how you plan to collect, synthesize, and interpret your data. It should include:
identification and operationalization (measurement) of variables;
a sampling plan (i.e., study population and sampling procedures, if appropriate);
justification of case studies used;
data collection/sources (secondary literature, archives, interviews, surveys, etc.);
a summary of analysis procedures (pattern-matching, etc.); and
the limitations of study and bias discussion.
Conclusion: Reemphasizes the importance of your study and ties the proposal together. Just remember that you will NOT answer the question in the conclusion. The conclusion will review what you have already said about the proposal. It will summarize the hypothesis that you want to test in the data that you propose. It is not the answer to the research question. The answer to the research question can only come from data. The hypothesis came from the lit review, but the answer comes from the data that you are proposing to collect in this proposal.
Reference List: As with all academic papers you need to reference the works that you have cited (direct quotes or paraphrases) in the text of your document and incorporate a complete reference list at the end. This list needs to be in APA. Please identify the preferred method on the title page.
Remember that the references you use demonstrate your knowledge of the topic area. This research proposal is meant to convince your professor that you not only have identified a worthy question in need of investigation, but that you are also capable of carrying out the research involved to successfully answer that question. At the very least you should have referenced 12-15 peer-reviewed sources in this proposal. Data can come from databases and news accounts for the facts, but the lit review should be entirely from peer reviewed sources.
Your submission should be at a minimum of 8-10 pages (the Title Page and Reference page will be additional pages).
At least 12-15 peer reviewed sources should be used for this assignment.
Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.
Students will follow the APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework.
Your submission is be in your own words with minimal quotes and cited appropriately.
This assignment will be graded using the attached rubric
Attached below is my research proposal paper:
The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, had a profound impact on the United States. In addition, the terrorist attacks changed the landscape of transportation security in the United States. Before 9/11, airport security focused on deterring and detecting traditional criminal activity, such as smuggling drugs or weapons. However, in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, the primary focus of airport security shifted to preventing terrorist attacks. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) was created in response to the 9/11 attacks and is charged with developing and implementing security measures to protect the nation’s transportation systems, including airports (Lawson et al., 2020). Moreover, several new security measures were put in place, including using metal detectors and X-ray machines, banning certain items from carry-on luggage, and implementing the no-fly list.
One of the most visible changes in airport security post-9/11 is the increased presence of security personnel. In addition, before the security measures, screening was primarily conducted by private security companies contracted by the airlines. These companies focused on preventing weapons and explosives from being brought onto aeroplanes and on deterring and detecting traditional criminal activity. However, they did not have the expertise or resources to screen for terrorist threats. In contrast, the TSA, a federal agency with a mandate to prevent terrorist attacks, had sophisticated and more advanced weapons in terms of technology (Thomas, 2018).
Another significant change in airport security post-9/11 is the use of technology. Before 9/11, airports relied on metal detectors to screen passengers and their baggage. However, metal detectors are ineffective against all threats, such as those posed by explosives. In response to the 9/11 attacks, the TSA implemented Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT), which uses x-rays to screen passengers and their baggage for various threats, including explosives.
The increased presence of security personnel and technology made airport security more effective at deterring and detecting potential threats. However, these measures also made travel more time-consuming and inconvenient for passengers. In addition, the TSA has been criticized for its use of invasive screening techniques, such as pat-downs and body scanners. As a result, the agency has been working to strike a balance between security and passenger privacy.
In conclusion, the 9/11 attacks had a profound impact on the United States. The TSA was created in response in order to protect the nation’s transportation systems, including airports. The increased presence of security personnel and the use of technology has made airport security more effective at deterring and detecting potential threats (Fox, 2021). There have been no successful terrorist attacks on commercial aeroplanes in the United States since 9/11. However, these measures have also made travel more time-consuming and inconvenient for passengers.
Lawson, C., Bersin, A., & Kayyem, J. N. (Eds.). (2020). Beyond 9/11: Homeland Security for the Twenty-First Century. MIT Press.
Thomas, J. (2018, May 24). Reflections on the influence of the 9/11 attacks on domestic security practices and future cyber security needs. SSRN. Retrieved October 13, 2022, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3177272
Fox, S. J. (2021, November 30). Past events: In hindsight! 20 years after – 9/11. STORE – Staffordshire Online Repository. Retrieved October 12, 2022, from http://eprints.staffs.ac.uk/7137/
Schaper, D. (2021, September 10). It was shoes on, no boarding pass or ID. but airport security forever changed on 9/11. NPR. Retrieved October 13, 2022, from https://www.npr.org/2021/09/10/1035131619/911-travel-timeline-tsa
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