Your exam will be on-line, and will contain multiple choice, fill in the blank,

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Your exam will be on-line, and will contain multiple choice, fill in the blank, matching, and short answer questions. While it is open book and open note, there is a strict time limit; studying in advance will help you succeed at this exam. Use the following guide to help your studies.
For opinion-based questions (“who is right, Plato or Aristotle”) sorts of questions, you are not judged on which side you choose, but rather, you are graded on the strength of your argument. Prepare your argument for these questions so you can make the strongest, most detailed argument for your thesis that you can. Knowing your opinion many be relatively easy – defending it is more difficult, so I do recommend practicing in advance.
The absolute best way to study for this exam is to re-read all of the essays this exam covers, with the study guide by your side. Look in the text for the answers to these questions. Re-reading the lectures can also be helpful.
You need to know:
• The basic plot of the dialogue
• What issue they’re arguing about.
• The basics of Crito’s argument, and Socrates’s response to each argument Crito forwards.
o Crito gives three arguments for why the moral choice is escape; Socrates responds to all three with counterarguments.
• Socrates’s argument, for why it would be immoral to escape from jail.
• Socrates’s argument for why he promised the state to obey all the laws.
• All of the principles Socrates forwards.
You need to be able to:
• Critically evaluate Socrates’s principles. Are they right? Are they wrong? Why? (I could ask you to evaluate *any* of his principles, so make sure you go through each of them and figure out what your opinion is. There is a list of his principles in the D2L lectures.)
Martin Luther King
You need to know:
• To whom is King writing the letter? Why is he writing it?
o What were the arguments they gave for why he should stop protesting in Birmingham?
o What were his responses to each of their arguments?
• What action did he take that got him arrested?
• Whom do we have an ethical duty to help, according to King?
• What are the four steps to a non-violent protest?
• What did King and his organization do to make sure they met all four steps?
• What are the differences between just and unjust laws? (hint: King provides three definitions of each; you need to know all three).
You need to be able to answer the following questions, and provide a strong argument supporting your answer:
• What is our ethical duty toward those outside of our own communities?
• Is violence ever justified? Why or why not? If you answer “yes”, please explain what situations justify violence.
• For a law that I provide, be able to state whether it is just or unjust, according to King’s criteria. You must use all three of his criteria in your defense of your thesis.
• Use King’s criteria to identify one law you believe is just, and one law you believe is unjust. Give the strongest argument you can for the justice/injustice of each law, and make sure you use all three of King’s criteria in your argument. They can be current laws or past laws, but must be actual laws.
• Socrates tells us breaking the law is always immoral. King tells us breaking the law in certain circumstances is morally justified and morally required, if you do so for the right reasons and in the right way. Who is right, who is wrong, and why?
You need to know:
• The definitions of these terms from Aristotle: greatest good, that at which all things aim, end-in-itself, happiness, virtue, intermediate end, courage, temperance, generosity, honesty
• That the Greatest Good is defined as “that at which all things aim” and “an end in itself” and what both terms mean
• That happiness is the greatest good
• What happiness means – in detail
• What “proper function” means
• How to find the virtue of any object
• What virtue for a human being is
• How to develop virtue
• How to define particular virtues – including (but not limited to) courage, temperance, generosity, honesty
• Be able to identify who has more difficulty being happy, and who can never be happy, according to Aristotle, and why.
You need to be able to:
• Critique Aristotle’s definition of happiness. What is his definition, and is he right or wrong, and why?
• Offer an opinion (and defend it with an argument) for the relationship between happiness and virtue. In your opinion, does being virtuous make us happier? Does happiness lead to more virtuous behavior? Or are the two unconnected?
• Offer an opinion (and defend it with an argument) on whether Aristotle would think that Robin Hood was a virtuous person, and whether he was flourishing (happy).
• Offer an opinion (and defend it with an argument) on whether you think that Robin Hood was a virtuous person, and whether he was flourishing and/or happy.
• Define “virtue” in your own words, and compare/contrast your definition to Aristotle’s. Then, give an argument for why your definition is more accurate than his.
Mary Wollstonecraft
You need to know:
• What do men see as the goal of educating women?
• What does Wollstonecraft believe should be the proper goal of educating women?
• According to Wollstonecraft, how do human beings develop virtue?
• What does Wollstonecraft say are the actual differences between men and women?
• What differences did people in Wollstonecraft’s day see between men and women?
• Name and/or identify some of the “womanly virtues” Wollstonecraft names in this this reading selection.
• Why does Wollstonecraft believe these are not true virtues?
• What features do all true virtues have, according to Wollstonecraft?
• What is Wollstonecraft’s response when people accuse her of wanting women to be manly / like men?
• What is Wollstonecraft’s argument for why women and men have the same virtues?
You should be able to answer the following questions, and defend your answer with a well-reasoned argument:
• Is paying attention to personal appearance a bad thing?
• What do you think should be the primary virtues of men? Of women? Are they exactly the same, or different? Explain your view in as much detail as you can.
• What is the role of emotion, with respect to ethics? Is emotion a distraction from rationality, and thus the enemy of virtue, as both Wollstonecraft and Aristotle claim? Why or why not?
• Is femininity itself a problem that should be abolished?
• Are men and women inherently different, or are they essentially the same, though society teaches us to be different from each other?

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